Dienstag, 21. November 2017

Some Notes:

On Genius (1996, Arthur Jensen):

On Achievement (1980, Arthur Jensen):

"If achievement depends on other normally distributed factors in addition to ability, such as motivation, interest, energy, and persistence, and if all these factors act multiplicatively, then theoretically we should expect achievement to show a positively skewed distribution. ... Theoretically a multiplicative effect of ability and motivation (or other traits involved in achievement) makes sense. Imagine the limiting case of zero ability; then regardless of the amount of motivation, achievement would equal zero. Also, with zero motivation, regardless of the amount of ability, achievement would equal zero. Great achievers in any field are always high in a number of relevant traits, the multiplicative interaction of which places their accomplishments far beyond those of the average person—much farther than their standing on any single trait or a mere additive combination of several traits. A superior talent alone does not produce the achievements of a Michelangelo, a Beethoven, or an Einstein. The same can be said of Olympics-level athletic performance, which depends on years of concentrated effort and training as well as certain inborn physical advantages. Thus it is probably more correct to say that a person’s achievements are a product, rather than a summation, of his or her abilities, disposition, and training."

Ambition/Zeal & Exceptional Achievement (1998, Arthur Jensen):

"The sine qua non of truly exceptional achievement, or greatness, in any field is an extraordinary level of ambition and zeal in one's endeavors. It is the opposite of a lackadaisical attitude toward one's work. Zeal is probably what makes possible the enormous amount of diligent practice in one's pursuit without which a world-class level of performance is simply not possible. The extraordinary level of virtuoso skill seen in great musicians, Olympic athletes, world-class mathematicians, chess champions, and top-level surgeons, for example, owes at least as much to their many years of disciplined study and practice as to their inborn talent. Their talent, in fact, might actually consist in large part of their unusual drive and capacity for assiduous persistence in developing their specialized skills over many years. Ten years seems to be about the minimum amount of 'practice time' needed for attaining a high level of expertise in one's vocation, even for famous geniuses. Ambition seems to consist of a high level of goal-directed drive, persisting in the face of difficulties and obstacles. It is possessed to an extraordinary degree by the world's greatest achievers. The personal sources of the immense ambition that overrides all obstacles are scarcely understood and, as yet, have not been very much studied by psychologists. Dean Simonton, the leading contemporary researcher on the origins of high-level achievement, has remarked that the source of the exceptional level of drive and ambition evinced by the most illustrious achievers in history is still one of the great mysteries of psychology. Psychologists often speak of 'achievement motivation', but this simply names the phenomenon without explaining it. The topic is crying out for scientific research."

Goals & Plans:

"A goal is something you want to achieve. A plan is your specific way of achieving that goal."

"school systems rarely, if ever, teach students to set goals and create plans to achieve them."

"most people have no goals or plans. Others have vague goals without any specific plan to achieve them. And others set goals that are unrealistic because the plans they create are unworkable."

"Take ten minutes each day to review your goals and your plans to keep them in front of you ..."

Flirtation Blindness:

"Some guys can be a bit flirtation-blind - especially the nerdboys I've always gone for."

Amy Alkon

Montag, 20. November 2017

The investment theory:

"Briefly, the investment theory is that gf is a generalized inherent capacity to perceive relations, based on total volume of effective cortical cells. In the course of school and life experience this potential enables the individual to perceive and commit to memory all sorts of relations he perceives in the real world. One can think of gf as describing the power of a process and gc as being the product resulting from gf and experience."

Intelligence, 1987  - Raymond B. Cattell

Beyond purely 'rational' choices:

"Now, let us think of the new mammalian brain as having evolved as a sort of portable computer, an information-processor capable of doing simulations with great speed and clarity. It is 'programmed' to calculate the path of least pain and greatest pleasure. But, as we have seen, the resulting calculations at times fail to enhance inclusive fitness. At such times, selection will favor the 'overriding' of the new mammalian brain. ... We experience these overrides, subjectively, as emotions. This does not mean that this is all there is to the emotions or that they serve no other functions, of course, but they do seem to be associated with what is tempting to think of as limbic-system overrides of the neocortex, of the old mammalian brain overriding the new."

Jerome H. Barkow, 1989

Sonntag, 19. November 2017

Robin Dunbar on Monogamy:

"a monogamous pairbond might actually be much more psychologically demanding than any number of casual relationships."

Robin Dunbar

William James on Hyperthymic and Dysthymic Temperaments:

"The sanguine and healthy-minded live habitually on the sunny side of their misery-line, the depressed and melancholy live beyond it, in darkness and apprehension. There are men who seem to have started in life with a bottle or two of champagne inscribed to their credit; whilst others seem to have been born close to the pain-threshold, which the slightest irritants fatally send them over."

William James