Freitag, 30. September 2016

Sprache als Intelligenzverstärker:

"Was unterscheidet uns ... von Tieren?"

"... Tiere haben keine Sprache wie der Mensch: keine syntaktisch-grammatikalische Sprache. Das ist der Hauptunterschied, eigentlich überhaupt der einzige Unterschied. Nämlich Tiere können auch sehr intelligent sein, ... unsere nächsten Verwandten aber auch Rabenvögel und kleine Affen können sehr intelligent sein. Der Unterschied wenn es um nicht-sprachliches Verhalten geht ist relativ minimal. Sprache ist das was uns als Intelligenzverstärker so außerordentlich klug und intelligent macht. ... Wenn man nämlich Kinder und Erwachsene für eine gewisse Zeit daran hindert zu sich selber zu sprechen während sie denken, dann fallen sie praktisch auf die Intelligenzebene von Schimpansen zurück. ... Also Sprache ist ein außerordentlicher Intelligenzverstärker."

Montag, 26. September 2016

"Intelligenz lässt sich allgemein als >Fähigkeit zum Problemlösen unter Zeitdruck< definieren. Ein intelligenter Mensch ist jemand, der schnell sieht, was Sache ist, und dem ebenso schnell einfällt, was jetzt zu tun ist ..."

Gerhard Roth
"... anxiety is an affective mechanism that reduces behavioral engagement in risky and potentially harmful activities (Maner at al., 2007). The associated sex difference can be viewed as an enhanced risk-avoidance mechanism in women - they do not need to risk as much as men to reproduce in natural contexts (Betzig, 2012) - or conversely the suppression of the sensitivity of this system enables men to better compete in risky contexts. Framed differently, anxiety is the obverse of the emotional composure that enables men to be successful in highly threatening, competitive contexts. Relatedly, depression is typically associated with social withdrawal and self-assessment as being low status and thus has the potential to compromise status striving (Price, Sloman, Gardner, Gilbert, & Rhode, 1994). Both anxiety and depression can nevertheless manifest at times as impulsive behavioral aggression in some men (Caspi et al., 2014), but not as the calm use of strategic aggression.
As a result, the reproductive consequences for anxious, depressed, or generally neurotic men are predicted to be more severe than for equally or more strongly affected women. Results from associated studies are mixed but generally consistent with the prediction that anxiety and depression negatively influence men's reproductive prospects and either do not affect or more weakly affect those of women (Berg et al., 2014; Gurven et al., 2014; Jokela, Alvergne, Pollet, & Lummaa, 2011; Reis, Dörnte, & von der Lippe, 2011)."

Evolution of Vulnerability
David C. Geary (2015)
"Most of the ideas of evolution are very intuitive if we could just set our minds free."

William D. Hamilton
Razib Khan and David Sloan Wilson on Kevin MacDonald (2009)

http://bloggingheads.tv/videos/2361?in=38:21&out=47:19

Laughter:

"You can't learn new things if you're scrabbling for your next meal or fearing for your life. Our ancestors spent a lot of time scrabbling for food and fearing for their lives as they descended from the trees and ventured out onto the African plains on their two wobbly legs. Periods of safety and satiety were few and far between. Human laughter probably initially evolved as a signal for identifying these periods ..."

David S. Wilson

Donnerstag, 22. September 2016

"Individual differences in dopaminergic function influence not only what people do when confronted with the unknown but also the degree to which they will eagerly seek out the unknown."

Colin DeYoung